Audience Effects Theories.

The Hypodermic Needle Model –
  • The intended message is directly received and accepted by the receiver.

Reception Theory

  • The meaning of a “text” is not inherent within the text itself, but the audience must elicit meaning based on their individual cultural background and life experiences.

Social action theory

  • Social action theory is used to get a better understanding of actions behind human behaviour such as unrational or rational behaviour. The perspective of the theory is to examine how/ why particular individuals and groups are defined by their behaviour which don’t follow normal behaviour of social groups.
Media dependence theory
  • This theory describes how the media effects the lives of people. There is a variation in this theory which tells how much people depend on the media and what types of the media are the most influential to them.

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